A painting has more to it than what meets the eye, like countless hours of trial and error. But that's a price artists are willing to pay to achieve perfection. However, when a painter decides to trust fundamental techniques over guesswork, they can avoid silly mistakes.
Whether painting with oil, acrylic, or watercolor, it's worthwhile to brush up on the basics – especially how to avoid mixing muddy colors.
1. Know the Primary Colors
One of the first concepts artists learn about is the primary colors: Red, yellow, and blue, and how they work together.
If an artist mixes two primaries, a secondary color is created. For example, mixing red and yellow make orange. However, when a mixture contains all primaries, an unpleasant brown or black color is often created.
There’s little going back from a muddy combo. But, if one seeks to create mucky colors intentionally, combining the primaries can be a perfect recipe.
2. Understand Complementary Colors
Mixed primary colors aren’t the only risky combos. Blending complementary colors can also be problematic.
Complementary colors refer to the opposite colors on the color wheel: Red and green, yellow and purple, and blue and orange. When mixed, the colors cancel each other out and affect their intensity, which results in gray, black, or brown mixtures.
Limiting one’s color palette of complementary color combos can help prevent muddy blends and even muddier results.
3. Use Analogous Colors
Analogous colors can be a painter’s best friend when it comes to creating clean, vibrant hues. These are similar colors next to or near each other on the color wheel.
For example, if an artist wants to create a bright purple, using a blue and red hue that leans more towards purple on the wheel can help create a more saturated, vibrant purple. Conversely, if one wants to create a dark purple, using a blue and red hue that leans away from purple on the color wheel can help create a darker pigment.
As a rule of thumb, the more one leans away from a color on the color wheel, the more opposite pigments will be introduced and create less vibrant colors.
4. Keep Materials Clean
Never underestimate the power of a clean palette and brushes.
It’s surprising just how much impact a lack of palette control can have over color management in a painting. Cleaning or using a new palette before a painting session can help an artist remain in control of color outcomes. And before applying paint to canvas, separately trying out a few brushstrokes of mixed color combos can ensure a hue is spot on.
Last but not least, thoroughly cleaning brushes between strokes can help to prevent colors from mixing into dark or murky hues.
Every artist was first an amateur at one point – learning about color theory and how to mix paint. But no matter what level an artist may be at in one's career, these fundamental skills always make up the basis of a masterpiece.